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Hebrew Bible / Old Testament


Translations and Texts

This is a guide that explores resources in biblical studies focusing on the Hebrew Bible, or Old Testament.

Studying the Hebrew Bible means working within several different cultures and languages.  The resources provided here are intended to assist students navigate the original texts of the Hebrew Bible.

Online English Translations

Here is a list of recommended online English translations of the Bible when studying the Old Testament / Hebrew Bible:

Texts in Hebrew and Greek

For students looking to read the original language of a text, these online resources may be helpful:

  • Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (BHS) [Online]
    • Also known as the BHS, this is a printing of the Masoretic text of the Hebrew Bible in the original Hebrew. This is the 1st edition (1977) of the BHS, and the 4th edition (1997) is available in print at the BC Libraries.  The 5th edition, Biblia Hebraica Quinta, is currently being published in 20 volumes and is also available in print
  • Sefaria [Online]
    • A non-profit website dedicated to publishing a complete digital library of Hebrew sacred texts, including the Hebrew Bible, Midrash, Talmud, and Mishnah.  Most texts provide an English translation and the original Hebrew text with excellent search and comparison features.  
  • Hebrew-English Tanakh (JPS)
    • 2nd edition (1999).  The Masoretic text is presented in the original Hebrew with a parallel English translation.  
  • Septuagint (LXX) [Online]
    • Rahlf's 2nd edition Greek text, courtesy of the German Bible Society.  


These resources will help define and explore the history of specific Hebrew and Aramaic words:

  • The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament [Online]
    • Considered by many scholars as the "gold standard" for dictionaries for the Hebrew Bible, this electronic version of the HALOT provides not only the full text but also several useful search tools.  Students can search for entries either by the original Hebrew word, English translation, or search for words based on chapter and verse.
  • Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon [Online]
    • "The CAL is a text base of the Aramaic texts in all dialects from the earliest (9th Century BCE) through the 13th Century CE, currently with a database of approximately 3 million lexically parsed words, and an associated set of electronic tools for analyzing and manipulating the data, whose ultimate goal is the creation of a complete lexicon of the language."