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Hebrew Bible / Old Testament


Hebrew Bible and the Ancient Near East

This is a guide that explores resources in biblical studies focusing on the Hebrew Bible, or Old Testament.

​When researching the historical context of the Hebrew Bible, a lot of information can be found in commentaries and monographs.  But it can be extremely helpful to learn more comprehensively about the cultures and peoples of the Ancient Near East.  These resources will introduce students to the world where the Hebrew Bible was composed and provide a rich contextual base for a more comprehensive understanding.

Books on the Bible and Ancient Near East

Original Language Texts of the ANE

For students looking to explore original texts of the Ancient Near East, these resources provide access to almost the entire known corpus of texts in Ugaritic, Akkadian, and Sumerian. Many texts are not translated, though almost equally as many are.  

  • Cuneiform Digital Library Initiative (CDLI)
    • The CDLI is a project that seeks to "virtually reassemble the scattered textual heritage of the Ancient Near East" by creating digital replicas of cuneiform tablets and publishing them online.  By cooperating with numerous museums, libraries, and organizations, the CDLI is able to provide open access to an impressive range of tablets.  
  • Electronic Tools and Ancient Near East Archives (ETANA)
    • "ETANA is a multi-institutional collaborative project initiated in August 2000, as an electronic publishing project designed to enhance the study of the history and culture of the ancient Near East."  ETANA provides electronic tools, electronic access to Ancient Near Eastern texts, and open access to early 20th century translations of entire bodies of cuneiform tablets.

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