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PSAP (LSOE) Doctoral Students Library Guide


Sample References

Book References

A reference for a basic book with one author:

Author, A.A. (1967). Title of book. Location: Publisher.


Gast, L.E. (2012). Mastering approaches to diversity in social work. Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

A chapter in an edited book:

Author, A.A., & Author, B.B. (1995). Title of chapter or entry. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx-xxx). Location: Publisher.


Kayser, K. & Johnson, J.K. (2008). Divorce. In Mizrahi, T. & Davis, T.E. (Eds.), The encyclopedia of social work (pp. 76-85).   New York: National Association of Social Workers.


Website with Authors Identified

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of document. Retrieved from http://Web address

Website with No Authors

When there is no author for a web page, the title moves to the first position of the reference entry.

Example of a website without an author:

National Institute of Mental Health. (2010). Retrieved from

Journal References

A basic journal reference:

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx, x-xx.

An electronic journal with a DOI

Author, A.A., Author, B.B., & Author, C.C. (year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx, x-xx. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx 


Edwards, H.R. & Hoefer, R. (2010). Are social work advocacy groups using web 2.0 effectively? Journal of Policy Practice, 9, 220-229. doi:10.1080/15588742.2010.489037

What is a DOI?

A DOI (digital object identifier) is an article identification number provides a permanent url for an electronic resource. You can usually find the DOI   located on the first page of the electronic journal article, near the copyright notice.

Can't find the DOI of an electronic journal? Cite like this:

Author, A.A. (year) Title of article. Title of Periodical, x, xx-xx. Retrieved from: http://www.xxxx.ccc

Newspaper Articles

Print newspaper article:

Author, A. (1983, September 30). Title of article. Newspaper Title, pp. A1, A4.

Online newspaper article:

Author, A.A. (2009, December 11). Title of article. Newspaper Title. Retrieved from


Wu, J.Q. (2010, August 22). Controlling emotion key to this game. The Boston Globe. Retrieved from