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News Literacy

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2. Publishers

A guide to reading (and sharing) news in the "post-truth" world.

Mis- and Dis-information

There are many reasons news can be inaccurate. Strong codes of ethics notwithstanding, journalists have biases and make mistakes. But then there is also mis- and disinformation: Satire or parody, misleading content, imposter content, fabricated content, false connection (misleading headlines, visuals, or captions), false context, and manipulated content.

Poster from FirstDraft, showing 7 Types of Mis- and Disinformation

Fabricated Content & Propaganda

Top 5 Fake Election Stories by Facebook engagement

Understaffed Newsrooms

Breaking News & Rumor

Breaking news is especially vulnerable to mis/dis-information because:

  1. it takes time for journalists to sort fact from rumor, and
  2. readers amplify rumor by sharing unsubstantiated claims & stories.

Verifying Stories & Claims

Organizations Fixing Newsroom Problems

False Connection and Context

Articles in print newspapers are in different sections: sports, editorials, local news, world news... . On the web, everything is in one long scroll, with dates and categories jumbled. The layouts of both create false connections.