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Guidelines for Academic Papers at the STM

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Sample Citations

This guide describes the accepted protocols governing submission of academic papers at the STM

Prefatory Note on Turabian and the Chicago Manual of Style

In this guide, we have provided sample citations and referenced sections from Kate Turabian's Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 8th ed.  Please note that the Turabian guide is considered the student version of The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS), and is aimed at providing guidance for students writing papers, theses, and dissertations.  The citation format is the same as the one found in the CMOS, which was written for professional scholars and publishers.  There is also a CMOS quick guide, like the Turabian one listed below, which provides equivalent, handy reference information.

Turabian Quick Guide

The Turabian Quick Guide provides citation samples for most commonly used sources, including: books; journal, magazine, and newspaper articles; theses and dissertations; websites; etc. When you use the Turabian Quick Guide, be sure that you are viewing examples in the Notes and Bibliography style. The alternative Author-Date Turabian style is not typically used at the STM.

Sample Citations for Catholic/Theological Sources

Click on the links below to see sample citations of each according to Turabian, 8th edition.

A. The Bible

B. Catholic Primary Sources in English - When citing these sources, be sure to use paragraph or section numbers. The symbol for section, §, can be accessed in Microsoft Word under: Insert > Symbol > More Symbols > Special Characters. Also, if you keyboard has a number pad, you can press Alt 21 to get the § symbol.

B.1 Catechism of the Catholic Church

B.2 Code of Canon Law - When citing the Code of Canon Law, the abbreviation c. indicates one canon, and cc. indicates two or more canons. The section symbol § indicates two or more sections within a single canon.

B.3 Papal Documents - Your first footnote should follow this basic template: author, comma, type of document (e.g., encyclical, apostolic exhortation, etc.), title of document in English, title of document in Latin (italicized), comma, date of promulgation (in parentheses), comma, section or paragraph number of the document, publishing information (in parentheses), page number or numbers (if applicable), period.

Promulgation dates must be given in the first reference and in the bibliography. In all footnotes, section number(s) must be provided where available and indicated by the section symbol § for one section or §§ for two or more sections.

There are a number of correct ways to cite the papal author. For example, some sources use Pope Benedict XVI while others use Benedict XVI. Consistency is essential.

B.4 Ecumenical Councils

B.5 Documents from the USCCB - Before 2001, the bishops of the U.S. acting jointly were known as the National Conference of Catholic Bishops and their documents were published by the United States Catholic Conference. Thus, these titles should be used respectively for author and publisher of the bishops’ documents before 2001.

B.6 Liturgical Books

C. Catholic Sources in Latin

C.1 The Vulgate

C.2 Code of Canon Law (1917)

C.3 Acta Apostolica Sedis - The section or paragraph number follows the date of promulgation.

C.4 Ecumenical Councils - Documents are cited by identifying the council, the session, the date of the public session, the decree and, if applicable, the specific chapter or canon being cited.

C.5 The Missale Romanum

C.6 Original Language Editions of Ancient Texts

D. Ancient Primary Sources Translated into English

D.1 Ancient Texts Cited from Collections

D.2 Ancient Texts Published as Monographs in Translation

D.3 Ancient Texts from Internet Sources

D.4 St. Thomas Aquinas’ Summa Theologica - The Summa Theologica of is cited by part (I, I-II, II-II, III), question, and article. For example, ST II-II, q. 23, a. 3, ad 1 means, the second part (half) of the second part, question twenty-three, article three, reply to the first objection. “Obj.” refers to an objection within an article. To cite more than one article at a time, use the abbreviation “arts” for articles, as in the following example: ST, I, q. 13, arts 5-6.

D.5 Ancient Philosophical Primary Sources