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APA Style Guide 6th Edition

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Sample References

Common Reference Examples

Book

Reference:

Gast, L.E. (2012). Mastering approaches to diversity in social work. Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

In-text:

(Gast, 2012)

Chapter in a Book or Encyclopedia

Reference:

Kayser, K. & Johnson, J.K. (2008). Divorce. In T. Mizrahi & T.E. Davis (Eds.), The encyclopedia of social work (pp. 76-85). New York: National Association of Social Workers.

In-text:

(Kayser & Johnson, 2012)

Journal Article

Reference:

Edwards, H.R. & Hoefer, R. (2010). Are social work advocacy groups using web 2.0 effectively? Journal of Policy Practice, 9(3-4), 220-229. doi:10.1080/15588742.2010.489037

In-text:

(Edwards & Hoefer, 2010)

Online Journal Article

Reference:

Edwards, H.R. & Hoefer, R. (2010). Are social work advocacy groups using web 2.0 effectively? Journal of Policy Practice, 9(3-4), 220-229. Retrieved from https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/15588742.2010.489037

In-text:

(Edwards & Hoefer, 2010)

Website with Authors Identified

Reference:

National Institute of Mental Health. (n.d.). NIMH outreach partnership program. Retrieved from https://www.nimh.nih.gov/outreach/partnership-program/index.shtml

In-text:

(National Institute of Mental Health, n.d.)

Website with No Authors

Reference:

(Use the title of the page in place of an author or organization)

Races in Waltham, MA. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.city-data.com/races/races- Waltham-Massachusetts.html

In-text:

("Races in Waltham," n.d.)

Print newspaper article:

Reference:

Author, A. (1983, September 30). Title of article. Newspaper Title, pp. A1, A4.

In-text:

(Author, 1983)

Online newspaper article:

Reference:

Author, A.A. (2009, December 11). Title of article. Newspaper Title. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com

In-text:

(Author, 2009)

Non-Profit Tax Return:

Reference:

Association of Social Work Boards. (2012). Return of organization exempt from income tax [Form 990]. Retrieved from http://990s.foundationcenter.org/990_pdf_archive/222/222414510/222414510_201212_990.pdf

In-text:

(Association of Social Work Boards, 2012)

Publicly Available Financial Statements:

Reference:

James K. Smith & Associates. (2013, January 31). Homeless Shelter Non-profit: Consolidated financial statement. Retrieved from http://www.somewebsite.org

Reference:

(James K. Smith Associates, 2013)

Reference

(use the Bookmark/Save link for your web address)

U.S. Census Bureau. (2016). 2010 Demographic Profile Data, profile of general population and housing characteristics, table DP-1: Massachussetts [Data file]. Retrieved from https://factfinder.census.gov/bkmk/table/1.0/en/DEC/10_DP/DPDP1/0400000US25

In-text

U.S. Census Bureau (2016)

Test or Instrument from PsycTESTS

Reference:

McElroy, E., & Shevlin, M. (2014). Cyberchondria Severity Scale [Database record]. Retrieved from PsycTESTS. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/t34245-000

In-text:

In this study the researchers used the McElroy and Shevlin (2014) Cyberchondra Severity Scale.

Test or Instrument from a Book:

Reference: 

Heiby, E. (1983). Frequency of Self-Reinforcement Questionnaire [Measurement instrument]. In K. Corcoran & J. Fischer (Eds.), Measures for clinical practice and research: A sourcebook (5th ed, Vol. 2, pp. 313-314). New York: Oxford University Press.

In-text:

In this study the researchers used the Heiby (1983) Frequency of Self-Reinforcement Questionnaire.

Test or Measure Found Online:

Reference: 

RAND Corporation. (2001). Vulnerable Elders Survey [Measurement instrument]. Retrieved
from https://www.rand.org/health/projects/acove/survey.html

In-text:

In this study the researchers used the RAND (2001) Vulnerable Elders Survey.

Published Test or Instrument:

Reference:

Beck, A.T., Steer, R.A., & Brown, G.K. (1996). Beck Depression Inventory (2nd ed.) [Instrument and manual].San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation.

In-text:

Beck, Steer and Brown (1996) Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II).... all following citations, Beck, et al. (1996) BDI-II....

NASW Code of Ethics

Reference:

National Association of Social Workers. (2014). Code of ethics of the National Association of Social Workers. Retrieved from https://www.socialworkers.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=ms_ArtLqzeI%3d&portalid=0

In-text:

(National Association of Social Workers, 2014)

APA Code of Conduct

Reference:

American Psychological Association. (2017). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/

In-text:

(American Psychological Association, 2017)

Example Legal References and Citations in APA

Bill summary from a database

Reference:

Congressional Research Service. (1993, September 10). Violence Against Women Act of 1993: S. 11, 103rd Cong. Proquest Congressional.

In-text:

(Congressional Research Service [CRS], 1993), successive citations as (CRS, 1993)

Congressional Research Service (1993)

Bill summary from Congress.gov

Reference:

Congressional Research Service. (1993, September 10). Summary: S.11 - Violence Against Women Act of 1993. https://www.congress.gov/bill/103rd-congress/senate-bill/11

In-text:

(Congressional Research Service [CRS], 1993), successive citations as (CRS, 1993)

Congressional Research Service (1993)

Public Law

Reference:

Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act, P.L. 103-322, 108 Stat. 1796. (1994).

Referencing a Specific Act Within a Larger Law

Violence Against Women Act of 1994, P.L. 103-322, 108 Stat. 1902.

As US Code

Violence Against Women Act, 42 U.S.C. § 13701 (1994).

In-text:

(Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act [VCCLEA], 1994), successive citations as (VCCLEA, 1994)

Unenacted Bill

Reference:

Violence Against Women Act, H.R. 1502, 102nd Cong. (1991).

OR

H.R. 1502, 102nd Cong. (1991).

In-text:

(Violence Against Women Act [VAWA], 1991), successive citations as (VAWA, 1991)

OR

(H.R 1502, 1991)

Enacted Bill

Reference:

Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act, H.R. 3355, 103rd Cong. (1994) (enacted).

In-text:

(Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act, 1994)

Entire Hearing

Reference:

Violence against women: Victims of the system: Hearings before the Committee on the Judiciary, Senate, 102nd Cong. 1 (1991).

In-text:

(Violence Against Women, 1991)

Testimony during the Hearing:

Reference:

Violence against women: Victims of the system: Hearings before the Committee on the Judiciary, Senate, 102nd Cong. 131 (1991) (testimony of Amy Kaylor).

In-text:

(Violence Against Women, 1991, p. 131)

Senate Report

Reference:

S. Rep. No. 103-138 (1993).

In-text:

Senate Report No. 103-138 (1993)

(S. Rep. No. 103-138, 1993)

House Report

Reference:

H. Rep. No. 103-395 (1993).

In-text:

House Report No. 103-395 (1993)

(H. Rep. No. 103-395, 1993)

Congressional Record Daily

Reference:

140 Cong. Rec. E1449 (daily ed. July 13, 1994) (statement of Rep. Schroeder).

In-text:

(140 Cong. Rec. E1449, 1994)

In her statements to Congress, Rep. Schroeder stated that, "VAWA would send an unequivocal message that police, prosecutors, and judges, the public can no longer cast aside domestic violence and stalking as personal problems" (140 Cong. Rec. E1449, 1994).

Permanent Bound Edition of Congressional Record

Reference:

140 Cong. Rec. 16496 (1994) (statement of Rep. Schroeder).

In-text:

(140 Cong. Rec. 16496, 1994)

Code of Federal Regulations

Reference:

8 C.F.R. § 101.1 (2018). https://www.govinfo.gov/app/details/CFR-2018-title8-vol1/CFR-2018-title8-vol1-sec101-1

OR

Presumption of Lawful Admission, 8 C.F.R. § 101.1 (2018). https://www.govinfo.gov/app/details/CFR-2018-title8-vol1/CFR-2018-title8-vol1-sec101-1

In-text:

8 C.F.R. § 101.1 (2018).

OR

Presumption of Lawful Admission, 8 C.F.R. § 101.1 (2018).

Federal Register

Reference:

Presumption of Lawful Admission, 68 Fed. Reg. 9832 (Feb. 28, 2003) (to be codified at 8 C.F.R. pt. 101). https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2003/02/28/03-4935/aliens-and-nationality-homeland-security-reorganization-of-regulations

In-text:

Presumption of Lawful Admission, 68 Fed. Reg. 9832 (2003)

State Codes

Reference:

Massachuesetts

603 C.M.R. § 28.00 (2018). http://www.doe.mass.edu/lawsregs/603cmr28.html

OR

Special Education, 603 C.M.R. § 28.00 (2018). http://www.doe.mass.edu/lawsregs/603cmr28.html

In-text:

Massachuesetts

603 C.M.R. § 28.00 (2018)

OR

Special Education, 603 C.M.R. § 28.00 (2018)

Greenbook (Print/PDF)

Reference

Committee on Ways and Means, U.S. House of Representatives. (2004). 2004 green book: Background material and data on the programs within the jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means (18th ed.). U.S. Government Printing Office.

In-text:

Committee on Ways and Means (2004) reported that enrollment in the AFDC soared in 1994, covering more than a fifth of children in the country (p. 7-2).

OR

(Committee on Ways and Means, 2004, p. 7-2)

Greenbook (Web Version)

Reference:

Committee on Ways and Means, U.S. House of Representatives. (2014). 2014 green book: Background material and data on the programs within the jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means (22nd ed.). http://greenbook.waysandmeans.house.gov/2014-green-book

In-text:

According to the Committee on Ways and Means (2014) 50% of the Employee Benefits program is covered federally and the other half is covered by the state (chapter 4, Introduction section, para. 3).

OR

(Committee on Ways and Means, 2014, chapter 4, Introduction section, para. 3)

CQ Almanac

Reference:

Landmark education bill signed. (2002). CQ almanac 2001 (57th ed.). Congressional Quarterly.

In-text:

"Landmark Education Bill" (2002)

("Landmark Education Bill," 2002, Highlights section)

Unnumbered Federal/ Committee Documents

Reference:

Senate Committee on the Judiciary, 104th Cong., Rep. on Violence Against Women Act in action (Comm. Print 1995).

In-text:

(Senate Committee on the Judiciary, 1995)

Senate Committee on the Judiciary (1995)

Unenacted State Bill

Reference:

H. 199, 189th Gen. Ct., Sess. (Ma. 2015). https://malegislature.gov/Bills/189/House/H199

In-text:

(H. 199, 2015) or H. 199 (2015)

Enacted State Bill

Reference:

H. 199, 189th Gen. Ct., Sess. (Ma. 2015) (enacted). https://malegislature.gov/Bills/189/House/H199

In-text:

(H. 199, 2015) or H. 199 (2015)

State General Law

Reference:

Online

 

Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 106, § 1-101 (2017). https://malegislature.gov/Laws/GeneralLaws/PartI/TitleXV/Chapter106/Article1/Section1-101

Subscription Database

Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 106, § 1-101 (LexisNexis 2013)

 

In-text:

 

(Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 106, § 1-101, 2013)

 

Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 106, § 1-101 (2013)

 

Tax Form

Reference:

Association of Social Work Boards. (2012). Return of organization exempt from income tax [Form 990]. http://990s.foundationcenter.org/990_pdf_archive/222/222414510/222414510_201212_990.pdf

In-text:

(Association of Social Work Boards, 2012)

Executive Order from Whitehouse.gov

Reference:

Trump, D. (2017, February 9). Presidential executive order on enforcing federal law with respect to transnational criminal organizations and preventing international trafficking. White House Press Office. https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2017/02/09/presidential-executive-order-enforcing-federal-law-respect-transnational

In-text:

Trump (2017)

(Trump, 2017, section 2(a))

Executive Orders in the Federal Register

Reference:

Exec. Order. No. 13,515, 74 F.R. 53635 (2009). https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2009/10/19/E9-25268/increasing- participation-of-asian-americans-and-pacific-islanders-in-federal-programs

In-text:

Exec. Order No. 13,515 (2009)

(Exec. Order No. 13,515, 2009, p. 53,637)

Memorandum From Other Departments or Agencies

Reference:

Napolitano, J. (2012, June 15). Exercising prosecutorial discretion with respect to individuals who came to the United States as children [Memorandum]. United States Department of Homeland Security Digital Library. https://www.hsdl.org/?abstract&did=712428

In-text:

Napolitano (2012)

(Napolitano, 2012, para. 5)

Letter From One Department to Another

Reference:

Letter from Jessica Shahin, Assoc. Admin., Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, to Elizabeth Berlin, Exec. Deputy Comm., New York State Office of Temporary and Disability Assistance (Aug. 18, 2011). https://www.foodpolitics.com/wp-content/uploads/SNAP-Waiver-Request-Decision.pdf

In-text:

"Letter from Jessica Shahin" (2011)

("Letter from Jessica Shahin," 2011, para. 5)

Congressional Research Services Reports

Reference:

With author:

Sacco, L. (2014, March 6). Violence Against Women Act: Overview, legislation, and federal funding (CRS Report No. R42499). Hein Online.

Without author:

Congressional Research Services. (2015, May 26). Violence Against Women Act: Overview, legislation, and federal funding (CRS Report No. R42499). https://crsreports.congress.gov/product/pdf/R/R42499

In-text:

With author:

(Sacco, 2014)

Sacco (2014) stated that ... (p. 18)

Without author:

(Congressional Research Services, 2014)

Congressional Research Services (2014) stated that... (p. 18)

Directive

Reference:

Directive 2013/32 of the European Parliament and the Council of 26 June 2013 on Common Procedures for Granting and Withdrawing International Protection (recast), 2013 O.J. (L 108) 60.  http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=OJ:L:2013:180:TOC

In-text:

(Directive 2013/32, 2013)

Proposal

Reference:

Proposal of the European Parliament and of the Council Establishing a Common Procedure for International Protection in the Unionand Repealing Directive 2013/32/EU, COM (2016) 467 final (July 13, 2016). http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:52016PC0467 

In-text:

(Proposal of the European Parliament, 2016)  

Govtrack.us Comparing Bill Versions

Reference both bills that are being compared and indicate their stage in parenthesis with the date.

Reference:

Improving Access to Maternity Care Act, H.R. 315, 115th Cong. (as passed by House, January 9, 2017). Civic Impulse. https://www.govtrack.us/congress/bills/115/hr315/text/eh#compare=350473:is

Improving Access to Maternity Care Act, S. 783, 115th Cong. (as introduced by Senate, March 30, 2017). Civic Impulse. https://www.govtrack.us/congress/bills/115/hr315/text/eh#compare=350473:is

In-text:

(Improving Access to Maternity Care Act, H.R. 315, 2017)

(Improving Access to Maternity Care Act, S. 783, 2017)

Govtrack.us as a Website Tool

Reference:

Govtrack.us [Web tool]. (n.d.). https://www.govtrack.us/

In-text:

Govtrack.us (n.d.)

State Court Rule

Reference:

Mass. Sup. Ct. R. 3:30. (2012). https://www.mass.gov/supreme-judicial-court-rules/supreme-judicial-court-rule-303-legal-assistance-to-the-commonwealth

In-text:

Mass. Sup. Ct. R. 3:30. (2012)

Common Symbols and Abbreviations

§ = section, refers to a particular part of a document, usually in legal materials

  • To create the § use the Character Map on a PC or go to Edit then Emoji and Symbols and search for "section" on Mac.

ch. = Chapter

Cong. = Congress, usually refers to a specific session of congress, i.e. 101st Cong.

CRS = Congressional Research Service, an arm of the Library Congress that conducts research on policy for the US Congress

Gen. Ct. = General Court, usually refers to a state level congressional session

H.R. or H. = House of Representatives

P.L. = Public Law

Rep. or Rep. No. = Report or report number

S. or Sen. = Senate

Sess. = Session

Stat. = Statute, usually refers to a specific law or section of a larger law

U.S.C. = United States Code